The Way New Living Organisms Emerge
We know that each biological organism has the potential for variation. This can be seen in domestic animals and wildlife. However, neither fossils nor other data available from molecular and developmental biology demonstrate sufficiently that this potential is the reason for emergence of new biological organisms.
This book presents a new theory which shows that biological organisms, despite variations, have a distinct basic form which is established through a process called "primordialization". Primordialization theory differs from traditional theories of biological diversity by suggesting that the ability of living organisms to evolve occurs only within the boundaries of their basic forms designs. Proteins that do not tolerate changes in their sequences determine these forms. Shifts in the arrangement of these proteins in some specific cells produce new design programs. A cell with a new design program becomes primordial cell, which can then develop into a new biological organism.
The book is written for scientists, students, and laymen who are interested in a new explanation of how biological evolution works. This work explains, for instance, why humans and apes are so different when so few differences among their protein molecules exist.
The author of this book assumes that there are a number of important questions in biology and medicine that are still waiting for answers. One of those questions is related to the designs of biological organisms. How is it possible that many living organisms despite sharing similar regulative systems during their embryonic development and having similar structural proteins differ from each other morphologically, physiologically and behaviorally? A question for which at the molecular level seemingly no satisfactory answer as yet has been found. The other questions are: Is adaptability an active or a passive process? How exactly new living organisms emerge? How instincts develop? How learning faculties and behavior in metazoan develop? Can we speak of ‘protein intelligence’?
To provide answers to these questions, he describes in this book for the first time a comprehensive biological theory that he believes to be able to show that the design, behavior, and functions of a biological organism is determined by a regulative program that is encoded by some invariant proteins. He calls this design determining program ‘primordial program’. Every biological form has its own specific primordial program; they acquire this program through a process which he name it ‘primordialization’. Unlike many other proteins, the proteins that are part of the primordial programs cannot tolerate mutations. Alteration of any of the proteins involved in a primordial program leads to its destabilization. This can occur in an egg cell, in a cell in the very early stage of an egg cell’s development, and in a somatic cell. While the first two occasions end lethal, destabilization of a primordial program in a somatic cell can turn that cell into a cancer cell.
The author believes that in the light of the primordialization theory the issues of adaptability and variability of the living organisms will be better understood. They are defined as innate potentials in living organisms that serve not only their survival, but also the integrity of their identities. As the reader will recognize, the theory of primordialization takes also a reasonable approach to help differentiate for the first time between the mechanisms which are involved in development and those which are in charge of biological diversity. Regarding ‘protein intelligence’, he considers this as the supreme kind of intelligence and the basis of cellular intelligence, which in its turn is paramount for the development of instincts, learning faculties, and behaviour in metazoan.
About the Author
To put his theory in form of this book the author profited from his broad spectrum of education in science and medicine (1- Bachelor of Sceince in chemistry, 2- Master of Science in biology, 3- M.D. degree in medicine, 4- Ph. D. in science, 5- Ph. D. in medicine) and his familiarity with the subjects as a protein biochemist and a former professor for biochemistry and molecular biology.
In 1968, I obtained my M.Sc. in biology, and in 1970 my first Ph.D. in biology and biochemistry from the University of Bonn (Germany) on protein synthesis. From 1971-76 I worked at the Max-Planck-Institute (Germany) studying the differences between ribosomal proteins in mammals and bacteria, with publications in international journals. In 1982, I obtained my 2nd Ph.D. (in medicine) from the Free University of Berlin. Upon request of my parents I returned to Afghanistan (my native country), and became professor at the University of Kabul. There I taught molecular biology and biochemistry, and published textbooks in molecular biology, biochemistry and immunology at that university. Then because of war I immigrated to Canada, where at the beginning I have done research in a Canadian university on the variability of major wheat proteins, published in international journals. Then I set off for the work of my life, to find out what makes the biological organisms to be different, if it is not the changes in the sequences of their protein molecules. I started reading and thinking and rethinking for some ten years, developing chains of ideas, until I came to the idea of "primordialization", of which the product is this book. -- The Author.